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Why Do People Really Keep Kosher, Anyway?


1.They Grew Up Doing It他们从出生开始就一直在保持

For many people who grew up in Jewishly observant (and that doesn't just mean Orthodox...) homes, keeping kosher is part of the fabric of their lives. It's what feels normal, and whether they do it out of habit or personal religious conviction, it's hard to imagine doing anything else.

对于许多在犹太家庭长大的人来说,保持kosher是他们生活的一部分, 这让他们感觉很正常,无论他们是从习惯还是个人的宗教信仰,很难想象做任何其他事情。

 

2. So Kosher Observant Friends and Relatives Can Eat In Their Homes所以严守kosher教规的朋友和亲戚可以在他们的家里聚餐

There's no denying that gathering around the table to share a meal with friends and loved ones is one of life's great pleasures. If family members or close friends keep kosher, the desire to host meals can be big incentive to keep a kosher home.

不可否认,与朋友和亲人在桌边分享聚餐是人生最大的乐趣之一。 如果家人或亲密的朋友都是坚持kosher生活的人,对吃饭聚餐的愿望可能是保持kosher的巨大动力。

Parents with children who become more religiously observant, for instance, may decide to keep a strictly kosher kitchen so that the whole family can dine together -- even if there are varying levels of personal observance within the family.

例如,有孩子的父母对宗教更加严格遵守,可以决定保持一个合格的kosher厨房,以便整个家庭可以一起吃饭 - 即使家庭中对kosher有不同程度的遵守。

 

3.They're Lactose Intolerant or Allergic to Dairy 他们有乳糖不耐受症或对乳制品过敏

Not everyone who seeks out kosher food does so for religious reasons.
But since the laws of kashrut enforce a strict separation between dairy and meat, people with dairy allergies or intolerances can rest assured that if a kosher product is certified as meat or pareve, it is free of all dairy.

不是每个人寻求kosher食品是出于宗教的原因。
但是,由于kashrut的法律强制乳品和肉之间严格分离,奶制品过敏或乳糖不耐受症的人们可以放心食用,如果肉或者不含肉或奶的kosher食品通过了kosher认证,它便是完全不含乳制品的。


4. They Believe Kosher Food is Cleaner (or Healthier or Safer) 他们相信kosher食品更洁净(或更健康或更安全)

In order to obtain and maintain kosher certification, food production facilities are subject to potentially frequent visits from kashrut agency representatives, who help ensure that the factory is meeting kosher standards. Some manufacturers, caterers, or restaurants will even have a mashgiach (supervisor) on staff for constant on-site kashrut oversight.

为了获得和保持kosher认证,食品生产厂家受到来自kashrut机构代表的频繁检验,这有助于确保工厂符合kosher的标准。 一些制造商,餐饮业或餐馆甚至会有一个主管工作人员持续现场的kashrut监督。

Many assume this extra layer of production supervision means the food is "cleaner" or held to a higher food safety standard. In the case of insect adulteration, that may be true -- kashrut has very little tolerance for the consumption of nearly all insects, so there's a lot of attention paid to ensuring that produce and grains are bug-free.

许多人认为这种额外的生产监督意味着食品是“更清洁”或持有更高的食品安全标准。 在目前市场上较多的食品掺假的情况下,这可能是真的 --- kashrut对于几乎所有掺假的行为零容忍,并花大量关注在对于确保食品和谷物是符合标准的。

But though kosher means "fit" to eat, from a technical standpoint, halacha (Jewish law) is not particularly concerned with whether a food is health-promoting or made in a pristine kitchen. There are plenty of kosher products that are full of additives, trans fats, or an abundance of salt or sugar.  And kosher supervision is no guarantee that a restaurant or caterer has a HACCP plan in place, or employs safe food handling techniques.
但是,虽然从技术角度来说,kosher意味着“适合”吃饭,但是halacha(犹太法律)并不特别关注食物是促进健康还是在洁净的厨房中制作。 有大量的kosher产品,充满了添加剂,反式脂肪,或较多的盐或糖。kosher机构的监督员并不能保证餐厅或餐饮者是否有HACCP认证,或采用安全的食品处理技术。

 

5. They're Concerned About Animal Welfare 他们关心动物福利

Along similar lines, many Jews and non-Jews alike who are concerned about animal welfare feel more comfortable purchasing kosher meat, because the Torah takes a strong stance against causing tza'ar ba'alei chayim (the suffering of living creatures). Shechita -- ritual slaughter -- is intended to be as quick and humane as possible, in stark contrast to the realities of factory farming and industrial slaughterhouses.
同样,许多关心动物福利的犹太人和非犹太人觉得购买kosher的肉类食品能够让他们更舒服,因为旧约中的摩西五经采用自己的方式来防止造成撒迦利亚人(生物的痛苦)。 Shechita - 仪式屠宰 - 旨在尽可能的快速和体现人道主义,与工厂养殖和工业屠宰场的方式形成鲜明对比。

Nevertheless, in recent years there has been a backlash against ritual slaughter in certain political arenas, with some countries banning it outright. While the campaigns to ban ritual slaughter tend to rally behind animal welfare concerns, many question if they are in fact motivated by Islamophobic and anti-Semetic sentiments.
然而,近年来,在某些政治舞台上一些国家完全禁止反对屠宰仪式,虽然禁止屠宰仪式的运动倾向于支持动物福利问题,但很多人怀疑他们是否实际上是受到仇视伊斯兰教和反犹太人情绪的鼓动。

The truth is, if one is going to consume meat at all, it's necessary to accept that an animal must be slaughtered to produce that meat, and that the process is bound to inflict some stress or pain upon the animal. Theoretically, proper shechita minimizes that pain, as the animal must be slaughtered swiftly with an incredibly sharp, nick-free blade. This is not to say that the kosher meat industry has been free of controversy related to factory farming methods and questionable slaughterhouse practices. But there's been a recent renaissance in terms of embracing ethical animal husbandry and shechita, as evidenced by the growth of outfits like Grow and Behold and Kol Foods, two purveyors of sustainable, humanely produced glatt kosher pastured meats.
事实是,如果一个人要吃肉,就必须接受一个动物必须被屠杀以产生这种肉,并且该过程必然给动物造成一些压力或痛苦。 理论上,正确的shechita(屠宰仪式)能够给动物带来最小化的痛苦,因为必须用锋利的刀片进行快速屠宰动物。当然这并不表示,kosher屠宰肉类行业就没有与工厂或屠宰场做法有关的争议。但是,最近一段时间以来人道畜牧方式和shechita的重新兴起,如Grow and Behold和Kol Foods这两家提供kosher牧场肉类生产供应商的出现就是很好的证明。

 

6. They're Vegetarian 他们是素食主义者

Jewish law categorizes foods as meat, dairy, or pareve (neutral). Meat and dairy must never mix, while pareve foods, such as produce, grains, or eggs can be consumed with either meat or dairy foods. (As a side note, fish is considered pareve, though Orthodox Jews typically refrain from cooking fish and meat together, or consuming them from the same plate).
犹太法律将食品分类为肉类,乳制品或pareve(不含肉或奶的kosher食品)。 肉类和奶制品绝不能混合,而一些食品例如谷物或鸡蛋可以与肉类或乳制品食用。(注:,鱼被认为是pareve,虽然正统犹太人通常不会一起烹饪鱼和肉,或者是让两者同盘出现)。

In any case, these categorizations simplify food shopping for many vegetarians. If a product is certified kosher pareve, it is necessarily free of meat and dairy, and so suitable for vegetarians. Similarly, lacto-ovo vegetarians can purchase kosher dairy foods without worry that they might contain meat products.
在任何情况下,这些分类简化了许多素食者的采购单。 如果一个pareve食品是经过kosher认证的,那么它一定不含肉和乳制品,因此适合素食者。 类似地,乳制品素食者可以购买kosher乳制品,而不必担心它们可能含有肉制品。

Incidentally, though kashrut purists maintain that Jews who keep a totally kosher home yet eat in non-kosher restaurants don't really keep kosher, a great many choose to do just that.  By consuming only vegetarian food (and sometimes kosher species of fish) when dining in non-kosher establishments, they adhere to the spirit -- if not the letter -- of the laws of kashrut.
顺便说一下,虽然kashrut纯粹主义者认为,要保持kosher需要完全在家饮食,如果选择在非kosher餐厅里饮食就不能算作真正的保持kosher,但是很多人都选择这样做。 在非kosher学校用餐时,他们便只选择素食(有时还包括犹太鱼类)。

 

7. They're Halal-Observant 他们是严守HALAL教规的人们

Though not identical, there are many similarities between the laws of kashrut and halal. Both observant Jews and Muslims refrain from eating pork, blood, and dead animals (e.g. those that died of natural causes, illness, or attack), and proper ritual slaughter is necessary to render an animal fit for consumption.
虽然不完全相同,但是kashrut和halal的法律有很多相似之处。 严守教规的kosher和halal都不吃猪肉,血和死亡的动物(例如死于自然原因,疾病或攻击的动物),并且认为屠宰仪式是非常有必要的。
In recent years, there's been growth in halal certification, but particularly in the U.S., it's still far more common to see food products with kosher certification. While not all kosher products are suitable for observant Muslims -- products containing wine or alcohol, for example, would be off-limits -- many seek out kosher meat or other kosher products if halal-certified foods are not available.
近年来,halal认证的需求有一定增长,但尤其是在美国,比较常见的是拥有kosher认证的食品。 虽然并不是所有的kosher产品都适合严守教规的halal - 例如,含葡萄酒或酒精的产品对halal是不允许食用的- - 但在没有halal认证食品的情况下,许多穆斯林便会寻找ksher肉或其他kosher产品以替代。

 

8. To Preserve Tradition and/or Embrace Jewish Identity 保护传统/或信奉犹太身份的人们

French gastronome Brillat-Savarin famously asserted "Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you what you are." Without a doubt, keeping kosher is a lifestyle, and one that defines the eater and provides clues about the community to which she or he belongs in many ways.
法国美食家Brillat-Savarin有一句著名的话:“告诉我你平时吃什么,我就能说出你是怎么样的一个人。 ”毫无疑问,保持Kosher是一种生活方式,如果从食客的角度来说,能够看出许多关于她或他性格社交方面的或属于哪类人方面的线索。

Of course, there are also many traditional foods that resonate as specifically "Jewish," and their preparation and consumption is vital to the creation and preservation of family traditions, holiday celebrations, and day-to-day life.
当然,也有许多传统食品的共鸣,特别是犹太人,他们的准备和消费是至关重要的创造和保存的家庭传统、节日庆祝活动和日常生活的方式。

 

9. To Promote Mindfulness About Food 促进关于食物的正念

Keeping kosher isn't just about the foods one may or may not eat. There are also many rules about preparation and consumption. There are waiting periods of varying length between meat and dairy food consumption. There are blessings to be said both before and after dining.
保持Kosher不仅仅只是是一个人可能吃或不可以吃的食物,关于准备期间和消耗期间也有许多的规定。 肉类和乳制品食品在消耗过程中有着不同长度的等待期,吃饭之前和之后都有祷告祝福。

In other words, keeping kosher is a detail-oriented endeavor, and one that requires discipline. But the structure can promote mindfulness and heightened awareness about what, how, and where one eats. And for many, that mindfulness can promote appreciation, joy, and deeper spiritual insight.
换句话说,保持Kosher是一个需要遵守规定并注重细节的努力,但结构可以促进正念和提高对怎么吃、怎样吃和在哪里吃的意识。 对许多人来说,正念可以促进欣赏,快乐和更深的精神洞察力。

 

10. Because G-d (and/or the Torah) Said So 因为上帝(或旧约摩西五经)说应该如此

Though it sounds a little flip, this is actually one of the simplest, most straightforward reasons that observant Jews keep kosher. For all of the philosophical, ideological, even quasi-scientific reasons people put forth to help explain kashrut, at heart the mitzvah (commandment) to keep kosher is considered a chok -- a law that cannot be explained by logic alone.

虽然这么说听起来有点怪异,这实际上对严守kosher教规的人们来说却是最简单,最直接的原因。所有的哲学,思想,甚至准科学的原因有助于解释kohser教规,而心里的戒律---保持kosher是一个不能仅仅用逻辑解释的法律。

That's not to say that keeping kosher is a matter of blind faith, but rather that embracing kashrut signifies an affirmation of G-d's wisdom and a willingness to accept the Torah's laws.

这不是说保持Kosher是一个盲目的信仰,而是意味着相信、肯定上帝的智慧和愿意接受kosher律法。



 

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